Urogynecology is a specialty that examines gynecology and urology-related diseases together, and treats diseases such as pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence in women. The field of urogynecology deals with the treatment of problems such as urinary incontinence, bladder prolapse, uterine prolapse in women. Urinary incontinence in women: It is defined as the involuntary outflow of urine in the bladder (bladder) where urine is collected, without the control of the patient. The urine accumulated in the bladder sends a signal to the brain to be expelled when the bladder is full. A malfunction in this system causes the patient to involuntarily leak urine. When it becomes chronic, urinary incontinence is expressed as a disease.
Although urinary incontinence can be seen in all age groups, it is more common in older ages. Urinary incontinence in women occurs in different ways. There are different types such as stress type urinary incontinence, urinary incontinence in urgency situations, stress and urge incontinence together (mix), urinary incontinence in the form of overflow of the bladder. Stress urinary incontinence is the incontinence of the patient's urine due to sudden reactions such as laughing, sneezing, coughing. Urge urinary incontinence can be defined as the sudden felt need to go to the toilet. It is the situation in which the patient suddenly feels the need to go to the toilet and, as a result, involuntary leakage of urine. In mixed incontinence, both stress factors and a sudden toilet need signal are seen together. In the overflow type urinary incontinence, it happens similarly to the urge type.
When the bladder is full, the patient does not transmit a signal to the brain and urinary incontinence occurs as the bladder overflows. In the treatment of urinary incontinence, first of all, it is necessary to determine which type of urinary incontinence is by the doctor. By determining the type of urinary incontinence by the doctor, treatment methods are determined. After the physical examination, he/she obtains information about the bladder by applying tests such as blood sugar, urinalysis, urine culture and ultrasound. If necessary, a full diagnosis is made with tests such as urodynamic test or pelvic ultrasound. After diagnosis, antibiotic treatment is started for urinary tract infections, depending on the severity of the disease. Various exercises (Kegel exercises) are recommended to strengthen the pelvic muscles. While surgical treatment is necessary in stress urinary incontinence; Drug treatment is started in urge urinary incontinence. Pelvic organ prolapse: It can be defined as the slipping of one or more organs from the pelvic region, out of their normal position, towards the vagina. Although it is not a life-threatening disease, it is uncomfortable and painful, but also reduces the quality of life. There are some factors that cause pelvic organ prolapse. These are: Weakening of vaginal tissues during pregnancy and childbirth. Weakening of muscles during aging and menopause. Excess weight Lifestyle. According to the severity of sagging, age and condition of the patient, pelvic organ exercises, hormone treatments, and surgical procedures are applied. While changes such as lifestyle changes, regulation of nutritional content, and weight loss are sufficient for some types of pelvic organ prolapse, different techniques for surgical repair in more advanced cases are clarified as a result of doctor-patient communication.