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Thyroid Diseases

What is Thyroid?

The thyroid is an organ located in front of the trachea, below the area known as the Adam's apple. The thyroid is responsible for regulating many hormones in the body.

What are Thyroid Diseases?

Thyroid diseases can be benign or malignant. Benign thyroid diseases are goiter, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland, sometimes accompanied by a nodule. Large nodular goiters can cause difficulty in swallowing, shortness of breath and sometimes pain. In some cases, thyroid gland enlargement is also encountered in the chest cavity.

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland works too hard and excess hormone is secreted. Thyroid hormones, which are secreted, affect the nervous, heart and muscular systems. Its symptoms are tremor in the hands, weight loss, sweating, insomnia, nervousness, stress, heart palpitations and weakness in the muscles. Hypothyroidism is the state of under-secretion or no secretion of thyroid hormone. Its symptoms are weakness, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, anemia, sweating, dry skin, constipation, impaired menstrual cycle, edema and depression. Malignant thyroid diseases are masses, tumors or cancers seen in the thyroid glands. These tumors develop inside the thyroid nodules. However, not all nodules become cancerous. While small tumors do not show symptoms for years, as the tumor grows, it can manifest itself with pain, shortness of breath, difficulty in swallowing and swelling in the throat.

What are Thyroid Treatment Methods?

Drugs, radioactive iodine therapy, one or more surgical methods can be used as goiter treatment. If hormone deficiency is detected, hormone drugs are used. If hormone excess is detected, thyroid hormone suppressive drugs and radioactive iodine therapy are used. Thyroid hormone suppressive drugs are used as treatment for hyperthyroidism or, if more appropriate, radioactive iodine treatment is applied. Hormone drugs are used for the treatment of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroid cancers are divided into four types as papillary type, follicular type, modular type and analastic type. Different treatment methods are used for each. Papillary type thyroid is treated surgically.

In case of detection of microcancer after surgery, medication and thyroid hormone therapy are administered. If the cancer has reached the lymph nodes, if the cancer has reached the capsule surrounding the thyroid, and if the cancer diameter is greater than 10 mm, radioactive iodine treatment is applied, not 6 months after the surgery. In the case of cancer after follicular type total directomy, radioactive drug therapy is used regardless of tumor size. For the medullary type, lymph dissection is performed from the tumor side after total directomy.


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