What is pneumonia?
Its medical name is pneumonia. It is a disease that occurs when the air sacs in the lung are filled with inflamed fluid, often caused by microbial factors. Who Gets Pneumonia? It is mostly seen in preschool children, people with diseases that weaken the immune system, and the elderly over 65 years of age.
What are the Causes of Pneumonia?
Many microbes can cause pneumonia. The most common are bacteria and viruses found in the air we breathe. Your body usually prevents these germs from infecting your lungs. However, sometimes these microbes can overwhelm your immune system, even if your health is generally good. Pneumonia is classified according to the types of germs that cause it and where the infection is transmitted. Community-acquired pneumonia The most common type of pneumonia. It occurs outside of hospitals or other healthcare facilities. It can be caused by: Bacterial pneumonia The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumonia.
This type of pneumonia can occur on its own or after having a cold or flu. It can affect part of the lung, a condition called lobar pneumonia. Pneumonia due to bacteria-like organisms Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also cause pneumonia. It typically produces milder symptoms than other types of pneumonia. Typically, this type of pneumonia that is not severe enough to require bed rest is called walking pneumonia. Pneumonia due to fungi This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health problems or weakened immune systems and in people who have inhaled high doses of organisms. The fungi that cause it can be found in soil or bird droppings and vary by geographic region. Pneumonia from viruses, including COVID-19 Some viruses that cause colds and flu can cause pneumonia. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years old. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. But in some cases it can become very serious. Coronavirus (COVID-19) can cause pneumonia, which can become serious. What Are the Symptoms of Pneumonia? Cough Inflamed (yellow, green, rust color) sputum production Stinging pain in the chest and back 39°-40° high fever Chills and chills. In some types, Fatigue Joint and muscle aches Dry cough Fever increased Anorexia Nausea and vomiting Earache There may be symptoms such as headache. It is recommended that people with these complaints consult a doctor. Pneumonia is a disease that needs attention.
How Contagious Is Pneumonia?
If the virus that paves the way for pneumonia is a respiratory virus, it is very contagious. Public transportation vehicles and crowded places are more risky in this respect. It is easier to manifest itself with a decrease in immunity. It can be transmitted by coughing and sneezing, as well as by contact with the mouth of the hand after contact with the surfaces contaminated with the virus. Pneumonia mostly occurs when the bacteria in the patient's mouth, throat and digestive tract descend to the lungs. It is very important that the sick person does not approach the elderly, children and babies.
How Is Pneumonia Treated?
In the treatment of pneumonia, the patient's age, diseases, the type of virus or bacteria that cause it, radiology and laboratory data are acted upon. For many cases, pneumonia can be treated at home. Patients with severe illness, elderly patients, and patients who require oxygen or intensive care support should be hospitalized. If the treatment is started early, the recovery of the disease is much easier, while the recovery becomes more difficult in cases of severe pneumonia whose diagnosis is delayed. For early diagnosis and treatment, a doctor should be consulted as soon as the symptoms are noticed. Although pneumonia is a disease that can be treated at home, depending on factors such as additional diseases, age, the nature of the virus or bacteria entering the body, and the level of resistance of the immune system, the person's condition may change and the person may need to be treated in an inpatient setting. One of the aims of the treatment is to provide an optimum length of stay and not to expose the person to antibiotic use for a long time. During the treatment process of this disease, antibiotics or antiviral drugs determined by the doctor, fluid supplement, electrolyte support, painkillers and fever reducers are given. However, the person should eat a healthy and balanced diet and not tire himself. Rest is important In addition to medical treatments, the pneumonia vaccine, also known as the "pneumococcal vaccine", is among the options. The main function of this vaccine is to be effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. As mentioned above, this bacterium is the most effective bacterium in the emergence of pneumonia worldwide. It is recommended to administer the vaccine mainly to people at risk. In other words, pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for people who are over 65 years old, have diseases such as AIDS, have an inadequate immune system and have had their spleen removed, or have diseases such as heart disease and lung disease.
The vaccine to be administered may have various side effects such as short-term high fever, weakness, malaise. However, these side effects go away in a short time in most cases. In addition, the vaccine is not given if the person is already suffering from a high fever disease.