Pericardial diseases are another disease that is seen from time to time in our patients who come to the cardiology outpatient clinic of our hospital. The pericardium is the sac in which our heart is located.
What are Pericardial Diseases?
The pericardium is the sac that prevents the heart from suddenly enlarging and infection reaching the heart. Pericardial diseases can also be called heart membrane diseases. There are many types of pericardial heart sac diseases and these diseases are pericardial cyst, pericardial defect, pericardial diverticulum, pericardial effusion, pericardial inflammation, constructive pericarditis and pericardial tumors. Pericardial Cyst Pericardial cysts form between the heart and the diaphragm. They are usually not a problem, but may show symptoms if they put pressure on other cardiac structures. Pericardial Diverticulum Pericardial diverticula are rare anomalies and may be congenital or acquired. They can be confused with pericardial cysts. They are typically at the level of the cardiophrenic angle. Its size and shape can change with body position and respiratory movements. Pericardial Defect is the absence of some or all of the pericardium. It is usually in partial absence. In some patients, it can be seen together with other cardiac malformations and bronchogenic cysts and hiatal hernias. Congenital absence of pericardium is a rare anomaly. Pericardial Effusion is the accumulation of fluid in the lining of the heart. Many diseases such as kidney failure, trauma, heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis can cause pericardial effusion. It can surround the entire heart, and it can also be seen in a limited size in patients who have undergone heart surgery. Pericardial Inflammation The patient's complaint may vary according to the inflammation, and even some patients may not have symptoms. Some traumas can cause pericarditis. Constructive Pericarditis is the thickening and hardening of the heart sac. While the causes were tuberculosis in the previous periods, the most common causes are radiation therapy after heart surgeries. Rare causes include infection, tissue diseases, anemia and cancer. Pericardial Tumors Heart sac tumors or cancers are rare problems. However, cancers related to organs located close to the heart, breast cancer, lung cancer or lymphoma can damage the pericardium.
What are the Symptoms of Pericardial Diseases?
Pericardial diseases can be similar to each other and their symptoms can be similar as diseases that can be related. Symptoms of pericardial cysts can be cough, chest pain, shortness of breath and palpitations. In pericardial diverticulum, pain may be seen in the lower abdomen for a few days. Symptoms of effusion may appear as diarrhea, vomiting, fever, chest pain, muscle pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Pericardial inflammation has symptoms similar to effusion and the patient may complain of shortness of breath, pain, fatigue, fever and palpitations. Dyspnea, cough, weakness, weight loss, and chest pain are also symptoms of constructive pericarditis. Diagnosis of Pericardial Diseases For pericardial diseases, ECG, ECO, MRI, EMAR, TSE images, CT and pericardial fluid for effusion, MRI techniques for diverticulum are important and used in diagnosis in terms of correct diagnosis and treatment according to diagnosis. When necessary, a diagnosis can be made for pericardial tumors by biopsy, cytological and immunological evaluation. Treatment of Pericardial Diseases Pericardial diseases are treated with medication or surgery, depending on the types, and in some cases, with drug support after surgery. Surgical procedures are performed by removing part of the pericardium and draining the fluid around the heart. Our cardiologist will help you by diagnosing the disease by applying the specified diagnostic methods and recommending the most appropriate treatment method.