Multiple Sclerosis MS
It is a chronic progressive disease characterized by demyelination of the white matter of the central nervous system, in which balance and coordination problems are intense.
It is a disease that causes myelin damage. It is a disease characterized by areas of demyelination (demyelinating plaque) in the central nervous system. MS is a disease of the central nervous system, namely the brain and spinal cord. In particular, the white matter structures in the central nervous system become ill. White matter consists of nerve fibers that provide communication within the central nervous system itself and between this part and other parts of the body. The average age of onset is between 15 and 50. Both genetic factors come to the fore in MS. It has been determined that 15% of MS patients have MS in a family member. MS is more common in women. Multiple sclerosis is a disease that progresses with attacks. Although the attacks vary according to the patient and the type of disease, it cannot be predicted when and how often the attacks will occur.
What are the Causes of Multiple Sclerosis?
The causes of multiple sclerosis are still controversial today. Although many different theories on the subject have been discussed, a complete consensus has not been reached since the disease occurs in many people for different reasons.
It has been suggested by some scientists that the disease occurs due to various previous viral infections, various substances that a person can take into his body by eating or breathing, harmful eating habits, geographical factors or the destruction of the immune system. However, none of these theories has been fully proven. According to an opinion put forward by some respected researchers; Multiple sclerosis occurs when a person is infected with a specific virus. According to this theory; a person is infected by a virus that will cause multiple sclerosis later in adolescence or childhood. The virus in question does not cause any negative symptoms and complaints in the person for about 10-15 years. Then, it occurs as a result of some severe diseases that the person may experience in the future (high fever, viral infection, bacterial infection, severe respiratory diseases, etc.). In addition to the above factors, the following factors are also taken into account among the causes of MS disease: Serious allergic reactions Nutritional disorders , mineral and vitamin deficiency Various biochemical events that may occur in the baby's body in the mother's womb Being infected with viruses such as "herpes" or "varicellazoster" in the past It can also be said that the ethnic origin of the person has a share in the emergence of this disease. Because when the data collected over the years are examined, it has been reported that the disease is seen at a higher rate in Northern Europe, North America and Canada (mainly the regions where the white race lives). However, people belonging to the yellow and black race have higher protection against the disease.
What are the Initial Symptoms?
Although the symptoms vary according to the places it affects the brain, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord, in general; Body numbness, muscle weakness, Fatigue Coordination disorder, blurred-double vision, dizziness The most important clues that may suggest MS are; Complaints start at a young age (20-40 years) Symptoms of involvement of different parts of the central nervous system Recurrent symptoms Recovering and reappearance of symptoms Common symptoms in attacks Loss of vision; inflammatory optic neuritis Unilateral numbness paresthesia of face or extremity; often spreads to the same or opposite extremity or trunk Inability to use the extremity Weakness in one or more extremities Gait or trunk ataxia Nausea and vomiting Stage 1 (Early Period = Minimal disability) In these patients who can walk independently but whose walking distance is shortened; Improving postural control Facilitation of normal movement components and patterns Developing muscle strength Improving normal posture balance, walking and coordination ▪ Informing about the disease and teaching the principles to be considered in daily life (such as protection from heat and infections) ▪ Establishing regular exercise habits with home program 2. Phase ( mid-term = moderate disability) In these patients who can walk a very short distance even with unilateral or bilateral support Keeping the patient's lung capacities in the best possible condition by using chest physiotherapy methods Trying to maintain the muscle strength and increase it as much as possible Ensuring the continuation of N.E.H. Maintaining the proximal muscle groups in a functional state Inhibiting spasticity Stage 3 (advanced period = severe disability) In these wheelchair- and bed-dependent patients, appropriate wheelchair design and teaching the exercises to be performed in the chair. Appropriate bed selection Prevention of bed complications (lung infections, decubitus ulcers, joint contractures, etc.). ) Teaching appropriate transfer methods Domestic arrangements What are Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Methods? Medical Therapy Physiotherapy Psychotherapy Principles to be considered in treatment: Physiotherapy should not be applied during attacks, the patient should definitely be rested. While the patient is taking medication during attacks, physical therapy should be minimized and more in-bed exercises should be preferred. The exercise program should be planned in a way that does not tire the patient and should include long rest periods.
The patient should be well observed, as the muscles created by the use of electrical stimulation to strengthen the muscle may cause fatigue. Hot applications should definitely be avoided, the treatment environment should be cool and morning treatments should be preferred.