What is Meningitis?
Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective layers that surround the brain and spinal cord, namely the meninges. Bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, and non-infectious conditions can cause meningitis.
What Are the Types of Meningitis?
Types of meningitis are named according to their cause and how long they have been going on. These are: Bacterial meningitis Viral meningitis Acute meningitis: Bacterial meningitis is usually acute, meaning the symptoms are severe and come on suddenly. Fungal meningitis Parasitic meningitis (meningitis caused by certain parasites.) Drug-induced aseptic meningitis: Rarely, certain drugs cause drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are the most common causes of drug-induced aseptic meningitis. Chronic meningitis. When meningitis lasts for a month or longer, it is called chronic meningitis. Meningitis after spinal anesthesia.
Who Is at High Risk of Meningitis?
The following people are at higher risk for meningitis: Children and infants younger than five years old.
The majority of all bacterial meningitis cases affect children and infants under the age of five. People with a weakened immune system. Those living with HIV or cancer, those who have had an organ or bone marrow transplant, or those who take immunosuppressive drugs, may have a weakened immune system. Persons with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. People who do not have a spleen or have a damaged spleen. People who live or travel to areas where infectious diseases that cause meningitis are common. People with chronic nose and ear infections, pneumococcal pneumonia, or a common blood infection. People with a head injury, traumatic brain injury, or spinal cord injury. People living with sickle cell disease.
What Are the Symptoms of Meningitis in People with Alcohol Dependence?
High fever. Vomiting (vomiting without nausea). Blurring of consciousness. Neck stiffness. Kernig, Brudzinski positivity. Casts on the body. How Is Viral Meningitis Treated? Antibiotics cannot kill viruses, and taking antibiotics in the absence of bacterial infection can cause harmful effects, such as developing antibiotic resistance. There is no specific treatment for viral meningitis, which is usually mild. Often, people recover from viral meningitis within seven to ten days with little more than rest, antipyretic or pain medication, and proper fluid intake. However, if meningitis caused by the herpes virus or flu is present, the doctor may recommend an antiviral medication.
How Is Bacterial Meningitis Treated?
It is treated with one or more antibiotics that target the bacteria causing the infection.
What are the Treatment Methods for Other Types of Meningitis?
Fungal meningitis is treated with long-term high-dose intravenous antifungal drugs. Other antifungals may be used, depending on the type of infection. In addition to the above medications, corticosteroids can be used to reduce the inflammation of meningitis. This is especially important in bacterial meningitis; for this reason, steroids are often given together with antibiotics.