Diagnosis and Treatment Methods in General Surgery
Diagnosis and treatment methods applied in the general surgery outpatient clinic of our hospital are colonoscopy, endoscopy and ERCP. Correct diagnosis is important, it helps correct treatment, and various treatment applications accelerate the detection of diseases. Colonoscopy As a diagnosis and treatment method, colonoscopy is a method applied when there are intestinal problems and the patient comes with complaints of constipation, diarrhea, itching, bleeding and pain in the anal region. This method, which is applied for colon cancer screening, is a major part of the treatment as it is a diagnostic method. One or two days before the colonoscopy, it is recommended that patients do not eat solid foods, but rather consume watery foods. Before the procedure, patient laxatives are also used. The aim is to clean the intestines for the operation.
If blood thinners are used 1 week before the procedure, these drugs should be discontinued in order to avoid blood loss due to complications that may occur during the procedure. Before the colonoscopy application, the patient lies to the left with both legs pulled to chest level. Superficial anesthesia is applied to the patient. While the colonoscope device is being transmitted to the intestine, it is advanced from the rectum, which is the last part of the large intestine, towards the cecum, which is the entrance part of the large intestine. By giving air with the colonoscope, it is easier to make the inner surface of the intestine visible. The small intestine is also examined until the part where the large intestine meets the small intestine. Except in exceptional circumstances, the procedure usually takes thirty to forty minutes. As a treatment part, if dangerous conditions such as polyps are detected in colonoscopy, the physician can intervene with the help of a colonoscope and remove the polyps. In case of detection of such conditions depending on the patient's complaints, a more detailed examination can be provided for the diagnosis by performing a biopsy on the patient. After the colonoscopy, the patient is taken to the room. The patient may experience gas problem due to the gas given to the intestines. At least one day of hospitalization is required because the patient's control after the application is very important. Depending on daily routines, normal diet can be continued. In case of any complaints after the application, he should immediately consult his doctor. Gastroscopy (Endoscopy) This method, also known as endoscopy among the people and used to diagnose digestive system disorders, can be applied in patients if they have stomach ulcers, long-term diarrhea or constipation, tumors and gallbladder stones. When applied as a treatment, some special instruments can be added to the endoscopy device. According to the situation encountered in the patient during endoscopy, removal of polyps, stopping of gastric bleeding and pathology from the tissue that may pose a cancer risk are performed. Before the endoscopy, the patient is anesthetized and the patient is put to sleep. The endoscope device is a device with a camera at the end. With this device, the patient's stomach and duodenum can be seen. This method is quite common in the detection of existing diseases, if any. If the doctor is faced with an unexpected problem, he can take samples during the procedure. After the procedure, the patient is checked and if there is no adverse situation, he can continue his normal routine. Since the controls are important, it is beneficial to stay in the hospital for one day. If problems such as weakness, bleeding, vomiting and shortness of breath occur in the patient, a doctor should be consulted. ERCP In this method, which is used in the diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder diseases, and most often in gallbladder stones, the patient is given a contrast agent and a cannula passed through the endoscope is entered into the biliary tract, and thanks to the contrast agent that can be seen in the x-ray, stones, tumors and anomalies in the biliary tract are detected. The patient, who is taken to the rest room after the procedure, may experience problems such as nausea and sore throat. After the swallowing process begins to be comfortable, it should be fed with soft and liquid foods. Transition to solid foods should be slow. There may be medications recommended after the application. There may be a problem of bloating due to the air pumped into the pancreas. Doctor control is very important when unexpected situations are encountered.