Diagnosis and Treatment Methods in Cardiology
The correct diagnosis method brings the correct treatment method. That's why using the right methods to treat the disease is the most important part. Diagnostic methods applied in our hospital's cardiology outpatient clinic, blood test, ECG, ECO, Holter ECG, holter blood pressure, EFOR test, coronary angiography as both diagnosis and treatment methods, percutaneous coronary interventions (PTCA, stent), cardiac catheterization and temporary and permanent pacemaker (pacemaker) methods.
ECG This diagnostic method is a method used to diagnose many heart diseases, especially heart rhythm disorders. The patient is placed in a lying position, latches are attached to the forehead and ankles, and wired electrodes connected to the EKG device are attached to the chest, arms and legs. Thus, the patient's heart rate and rhythm are measured, and then the data is taken from the EKG device. ECHO, also known as echocardiography, is an ultrasonographic diagnosis method that is easily used because it does not involve radiation. In ECO, the patient is first placed on the left side. Gel is applied to the patient's chest and the ECO head is circulated in the heart area.
Holter ECG This diagnostic method, which is applied to find irregularity and arrhythmia in heartbeats, is a method that takes 24 hours. Electrodes connected to the recorder are attached to the body and measure the heartbeat for 24 hours. Holter Blood Pressure This diagnostic method, which is used to measure hypertension and hypotension, takes 24 hours. The portable electronic device that measures and records the blood pressure while the patient continues his daily activities in his daily life is wrapped around the arm and stays with the patient for 24 hours. In this diagnostic method, the patient is taken to a device such as a treadmill, barefoot and topless. Electrodes connected to the EFOR device with cables are attached to the chest area. Heart rate and rhythm measurement is followed on the screen connected to the device. Every three minutes, the front of the belt is raised higher, providing a slope type floor. If the patient feels tired, it can be terminated.
Although it varies from person to person, it can take between 10 and 30 minutes. Cardiac Catheterization This practice, which is one of the diagnostic methods and also known as cardiac catheterization, is to keep imaging records by giving contrast material to the vein. Before the application, the patient should fast for 4 – 12 hours.
Before the procedure to be performed in the groin or arm, these areas are anesthetized and a cannula is placed in the vein in the region. The catheter, that is, the thin tube, is delivered to the heart cavities and the pressure is recorded. Arteries are visualized and a film is recorded by giving a contrast agent, a kind of medical dye. With this method, heart problems in the patient are diagnosed. Coronary Angiography This application, which is both a diagnosis and treatment method, aims to open the clogged vessel by entering the arm with a wire procedure for treatment. In addition, as a diagnostic method, vascular occlusion is checked and it is checked whether a more serious treatment is required or whether there is another disease. Balloon Angioplasty The balloon is inflated in the vessels opened after coronary angiography, which is a very successful treatment method. This balloon pushes the plaques causing the obstruction towards the walls and blood flow is provided. It is performed under local anesthesia while the patient is awake. One day of hospitalization may be required after the application.
Coronary Stent Balloon stenting is applied if sufficient patency cannot be achieved in the inflated vein and there is still difficulty in blood flow. A stent may be required depending on the narrowed area in the balloon inflated vein. The stent can be thought of as a steel wire cage and placed over the inflated balloon.In case of recurrence of the obstruction, balloon and stent application can be performed again. Generally, the patient is taken to the intensive care unit after the application and it is an application that requires an average of two days of hospitalization. Temporary and Permanent Pacemakers Temporary pacemakers are placed to prevent complications after arrhythmia treatment, tachycardia, heart attack and heart surgery. In cases where permanent pacemaker is required, it can be used until permanent pacemaker is inserted.
It has a large generator and is connected to the heart by wires. It is located outside the body. For the battery to be inserted into the patient in the catheter laboratory, the cable is taken to the heart through the vein from the groin or arm region and connected to the battery. Permanent pacemaker is applied in permanent rhythm disorders. Whichever arm the patient uses more, the battery is placed on the opposite side. It is usually done with local anesthesia.
The patient, who is taken to the catheter laboratory, is anesthetized with intravenous drugs, and under local anesthesia, the cables are advanced to the heart through the vein and the pacemaker battery is placed in the pocket opened under the muscles. More advanced (ICD and CTR-D) pacemakers are also used for this method, which is also applied in heart failure.