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Thyroid Diseases

The thyroid is an organ located in front of the trachea, below the area known as the Adam's apple. The thyroid is responsible for the regulation of many hormones in the body.

What Are Thyroid Diseases?

Thyroid diseases can be benign and malignant. Benign thyroid diseases are goiter, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Sometimes, goiter, which manifests itself with the nodule, may manifest itself with swelling of two or one side of the neck. Goiters with large nodules may cause difficulty in swallowing, shortness of breath and sometimes pain. In some cases, there are also situations where thyroid gland enlargement is towards the chest cavity.

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland works too hard and excess hormone is secreted. Highly secreted thyroid hormones affect the nervous, cardiac and muscular systems. Symptoms include trembling hands, weight loss, sweating, insomnia, nervousness, stress, heart palpitations and muscle weakness.

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid hormone is less or not at all secreted. Its symptoms are fatigue, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, anemia, sweating, dry skin, constipation, disruption of the menstrual cycle, edema, and depression.

Malignant thyroid diseases are masses, tumors or cancers seen in the thyroid glands. These tumors develop inside the thyroid nodules. However, not all nodules become cancerous. While small tumors do not show symptoms for years, they can manifest themselves with pain, shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing and swelling in the throat by pressing on the tumor as it grows around.

What Are The Thyroid Treatment Methods?

Medication, radioactive iodine treatment, one or more surgical methods can be used as goiter treatment. If hormone deficiency is detected, hormone drugs are used. If hormone excess is detected, thyroid hormone suppressive drugs and radioactive iodine therapy are used.

Thyroid hormone suppressing drugs are used as a treatment for hyperthyroidism or, if more appropriate, radioactive iodine treatment is applied.

Hormone drugs are used for the treatment of hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroid cancers are divided into four types as papillary type, follicular type, modular type and analastic type. Different treatment methods are used for each.

Papillary type thyroid is treated by surgical method. In case of microcancer detection after surgery, medication and thyroid hormone therapy are applied. If the cancer reaches the lymph nodes, reaches the capsule surrounding the thyroid and the cancer diameter is greater than 10 mm, radioactive iodine treatment is applied six months after the surgery. In the case of cancer after follicular type total directomy, radioactive drug therapy is used regardless of tumor size.

For the medullary type, lymph dissection is performed from the tumor side after total directomy.

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