Gynecological Cancer Surgeries
What is Uterine Cancer?
Uterine cancer is called uterine cancer when cancer starts in the uterine region. In women who have entered the menopause, the incidence increases with the end of the menstrual period. It is also called endometrial cancer. There are some tests that need to be done to make the diagnosis. A biopsy is performed by taking a tissue from the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus. The diagnosis is made according to the biopsy report sent to the pathology department. Pathological examination can also be performed by taking tissue with methods such as dilation or curettage. Another diagnostic method is hysteroscopy. Examinations are made by hysteroscopy, that is, by entering the uterus from the vagina region with the help of a device. For the diagnosis of uterine cancer, it is recommended that women, especially after a certain age, have a gynecological examination every year. Again, excess weight can be seen as a risk factor for uterine cancer. Losing weight can be expressed as one of the methods of maintaining a healthy and regular diet.
What are the Symptoms of Uterine Cancer?
Unusual menstrual bleeding, Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, Differences in vaginal discharge, Pain during sexual intercourse, Blood in the urine
What is Cervical Cancer (Cervix)?
The cervix is the area between the end of the vagina line and the uterus. Cervical cancer is diagnosed if cancerous cells form in the cervix region. Treatment methods in cervical cancers are radiation, chemotherapy and/or surgery. Ovarian cancer is a disease that occurs due to the formation of cancerous cells in the ovaries of women. The treatment of cancerous cells formed in the ovaries in the pelvic region is mostly done with chemotherapy and surgical operation. Tubal cancer (tuba uterina), unlike ovarian cancers, is the formation of cancerous cells in the fallopian tubes (pelvic region). The fallopian tubes are located at the point where the ovaries connect with the uterus and establish the connection between them. Vaginal bleeding may present with symptoms such as blood in the vaginal discharge. As in ovarian cancer, its treatment is performed by surgical operation or chemotherapy treatment. Treatment of Uterine Cancer By performing hysterectomy for uterine cancer, the patient's uterus is removed by open or closed surgery. The doctor decides according to the patient's condition or the spread of the cancer. Depending on the situation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormonal treatment can be carried out by the doctor. Radiotherapy: After the surgery, radiotherapy is applied depending on the suitability of the cancerous area and its curability with radiation. It is a method that can be used for endometrial cancers. Radiotherapy is used to prevent recurrence of the disease after surgery. If the patient's health is not suitable for a hysterectomy or similar major surgery, radiotherapy can be applied as the main treatment method. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the process of killing cancer cells using chemicals. Chemotherapy can be done in different ways. Intravenous chemotherapy is the administration of chemicals to the patient through a vein. Oral chemotherapy is the use of chemotherapy pills by the patient. By using both, a mixed treatment process can also be carried out. Chemotherapy treatment has some side effects. Feeling sick and tired, hair loss, itchy skin, diarrhea or constipation etc. complications may develop. Hormone therapy: Hormone treatments are used to slow the growth of cancer cells. Endocrine (hormone) treatments are also used in the treatment of uterus, cervix or some other types of cancer.
Hormone treatments are performed with two different hormones. Estrogen therapy is loaded with estrogen to slow down the cancer. Progesterone therapy is loaded with progestin to slow down the cancer. Hormone therapies are a treatment method used to alleviate the effects of menopause and to reduce the weakening of the bone structure. Hysterectomy: A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. For women, after the removal of the uterus, there is no chance of menstruating or getting pregnant again. In this respect, after trying other treatment methods, the uterus is finally removed.
Hysterectomy is performed in non-cancerous fibroids, heavy and unresolved menstrual bleeding, uterine prolapse, uterine cancers, cervix (cervix) cancers or ovarian cancers. Hysterectomy can be performed in three different ways. Laparoscopic hysterectomy is the procedure of removing the uterus from the upper part of the vagina using the closed method and laparoscopic method. Vaginal hysterectomy is the procedure of removing the uterus through the vaginal route by making an incision in the upper part of the vagina. In an abdominal hysterectomy, the uterus is removed through an incision in the lower abdomen. HPV infection - HPV vaccine: The HPV virus, known as a sexually transmitted disease, is a disease that occurs due to the infection of the epithelial cells of the human papilloma virus. Since the HPV virus causes cervical cancer, it is recommended by doctors that women take the necessary precautions to prevent the disease by getting HPV vaccine at certain doses and intervals. For the 10-12 age group, two doses of HPV vaccine at 6 or 12 month intervals are required. 3 doses of HPV vaccine are recommended for young people between the ages of 15-25. The most effective period of the vaccine is between the ages of 10-15. However, women up to age 45 can have the HPV vaccine. There are currently no studies on HPV vaccine after the age of 45.