Epilepsy / Sara
What is Epilepsy (Sara)?
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that occurs as a result of an unusual electrochemical discharge of nerve cells in the brain.
Epilepsy, also known as epilepsy among the people, is due to short-term brain dysfunction and occurs as a result of temporary abnormal electrical spread in the brain cells. It causes temporary loss of consciousness as a result of excessive and uncontrolled release of electricity related to the normal functioning of the brain. If the seizure lasts too long, it becomes dangerous (30 minutes). Epilepsy is a disease that affects approximately 1% of the world's population. The disease is seen equally in men and women, regardless of race. Epileptic seizures can occur at any age, but most often the youngest and oldest are affected. epilepsy ; Epilepsy is not mental retardation. Epilepsy is a disease that can be seen at any age.
Seizures are unpredictable. Epilepsy is not treated, it is controlled. There may be behavioral and learning disorders in epilepsy. Each year, 120 out of 100,000 people are diagnosed with epilepsy. Epilepsy is not a contagious disease. If epileptic seizures are not controlled, they can cause problems with intelligence. Epilepsy can begin right after birth or years later. What are the causes of epilepsy? Brain tumor Vascular (infarct, hemorrhage, bleeding related to anivrasma) Head blows, traffic accidents Problems in the womb. Damages left over from birth (congenital) Degenerative damages Genetic and metabolic diseases Brain infections such as meningitis can lead to epilepsy.
What are the Symptoms of Epilepsy (Sara) Disease? Symptoms of epilepsy differ from person to person, and patients may not have all of the symptoms. Since epilepsy disease arises with the deterioration of a function in the human brain, its symptoms may vary according to the region of the brain that is affected, and the symptoms may differ according to the function. In general, the symptoms of epilepsy are: Sudden convulsions in the body Uncontrollable shaking of the arms and legs Continuous shaking of the head Focusing on a fixed point Continuous and rapid blinking Psychological symptoms such as fear, anxiety or déjà vu (feeling as if you have experienced the moment before) Epilepsy, felt by the patient before the seizure (seizure) sense of the future) are defined as subjective sensations. Numbness Changes in vision and hearing Nausea or feeling of pressure in the stomach Sudden feeling of fear Different smells What are the Treatment Methods for Epilepsy?
Epilepsy patients; Believing that they have irreversibly lost their health and freedom, fear of death, and chronic illness can cause acute or chronic stress. The often ambiguous nature of epilepsy causes patients to experience many psychosocial problems. Psychosocial problems associated with epilepsy may depend on the age of the patient, the underlying etiology and neuropathy of the disease, the duration of epilepsy, the frequency, severity and type of seizures, EEG discharge, antiepileptic drugs, and various psychological factors. The negative behaviors of the society towards epilepsy are among the other factors that cause psychosocial problems.
To protect or regulate the daily functions and positions of epilepsy patients in the society; Changing the society's views on epilepsy should be tackled and patients should be treated. It is stated that it is effective in the treatment of patients with epilepsy, including applications such as antiepileptic drugs and neurosurgery, as well as educational and psychological interventions. In some studies, it is seen that psychological interventions reduce the frequency of seizures and stress in patients with epilepsy. Communication between healthcare professionals, patients and their families is very important in the management of epilepsy. It is stated that it is more common in individuals diagnosed with epilepsy as a child than in those diagnosed as adults. From the time when epilepsy patients were first diagnosed; Not being informed about social aspects such as diagnosis and treatment, situations to be considered in his life, and stigma related to the disease negatively affects the patient and his family's coping with the disease. For this reason, the patient and his family should be supported and informed in the method of epilepsy.
Nurses play a key role in improving the quality of care of patients with epilepsy and in regulating their communication with other healthcare professionals. Medication Starting Medication The most important point in the treatment of epilepsy is the regular and planned use of the drugs chosen to stop the seizures. In four out of five patients, seizures stop when appropriate drugs are selected and taken in adequate doses. Physicians generally prefer to start treatment with a single epilepsy drug. If this drug does not adequately control the seizures, then the drug can be changed or a second drug added. Surgical Treatment Before deciding on surgical treatment, it is necessary to show that the patient's seizures are resistant to medical treatment.
Therefore, patients should use drugs for at least 2 years. It should be ensured that at least 2-3 appropriate antiepileptic drugs are used individually (monotherapy) and together (polytherapy) in sufficient doses and for a period of time. These drugs need to be gradually increased until seizures are controlled or until unacceptable dose-related side effects develop. In patients whose seizures are due to structural disorders such as brain tumor or vascular abnormality, surgical treatment can be decided earlier. Both drug resistance and surgical success are high in these cases. The longer the seizures remain uncontrollable, the lower the success of seizure control and the higher the likelihood of psychosocial problems after surgery. There are two main types of epilepsy surgery methods.
Resective Surgery: It is the removal of the epileptic focus itself, which is more preferred. Functional surgery and Palliative surgery: It is a surgical method aimed at reducing the spread, frequency and severity of seizures by cutting the ways of seizure spread. Resective surgery methods for the complete elimination of seizures are applied to patients with partial onset seizures, that is, their seizures start from a specific focus. These patients are patients with low quality of life, who proved to be resistant after using drugs in sufficient number, dose and duration.
If the epileptic focus is on one side of the brain and in a relatively harmless place, that is, if important cognitive functions such as mobility, memory, speech and vision will not be impaired after the operation, the surgical method should be determined without delay. This decision can only be made after pre-surgical examinations. Before the surgery, it is decided whether the patient is suitable for this type of surgery as a result of the tests performed by a team of neurology specialists, neurosurgeons, radiology and neuropsychology, and psychiatry specialists.