Cerebrovascular diseases are a group of diseases that occur with the occlusion or bleeding of the vessels feeding the brain and give symptoms related to the damaged brain region. The condition caused by the narrowing and occlusion of the brain vessels is called ischemic cerebrovascular disease, and the blood spreading through the rupture of the vessel is called cerebral hemorrhage.
According to statistics, cerebrovascular diseases are the third cause of death after cancer and heart diseases, and the first in terms of morbidity. Among the neurological diseases of adulthood, cerebrovascular diseases constitute the most common and most important disease group. Epidemiological data in Western societies show that 0.2% of populations have a stroke each year. One-third of cases die within one year, making stroke the third leading cause of death. In one third of the cases, varying degrees of sequelae remain due to stroke, and this rate puts stroke in the category of the disease that causes the most disability and addiction.
What are the Risk Factors?
Unchangeable risk factors Age: Cerebrovascular diseases occur more frequently and progress more seriously in advanced ages. Gender: It is more common in men. Genetic Factors: Cerebrovascular disease is more common in some populations. Modifiable Risk Factors Hypertension: Uncontrolled hypertension can cause damage, plaque formation and narrowing of cerebral vessels. High blood pressure can also cause blood vessels to rupture, leading to bleeding into the brain.
It is possible to significantly reduce the frequency of cerebrovascular events with regular antihypertensive therapy and diet. Hyperlipidemia: High blood lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) is a well-known risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. This situation needs to be eliminated with diet, exercise, and in some cases, medications. Diabetesmellitus: Uncontrolled high blood sugar can cause cerebrovascular accident by causing deterioration in vascular structures and blood coagulation functions.
Good diabetes control is very important. Sedentary life: It is known that lack of movement and exercise causes cerebrovascular diseases. Smoking: It is the most common cerebrovascular risk factor. Alcohol: Frequent and excessive consumption of alcohol can cause heart rhythm disorders and vessel wall damage. Heart diseases: heart valve diseases, rhythm disorders, failures can cause cerebrovascular disease with clot formation and embolism.
What are the symptoms?
Headache that comes and goes for a few hours Vision loss Speech disorders Memory problems Numbness in one half of the body Loss of strength Tingling Cerebral thrombosis: It is responsible for about half of cerebrovascular events. Occlusion of the vessel occurs when atherosclerotic plaques accumulate in the vessel. Neurological deficits develop gradually in such patients. It starts with a headache. Edema develops in the affected area, usually within 72 hours. Cerebral embolism: clot, air, fat, tumor part etc from extracranial veins. It occurs as a result of substances blocking the cerebral vessels.
Emboli birkaç saniye ya da bir dakika gibi çok kısa sürede belirti vermeden gelişir. Sıklıkla kapak hastalıkları, artiyalfibrilasyon gibi hastalıklar sonucu oluşur. İntrakraniyalkanama : kan akımının aniden kesilmesine neden olur. Belirti ve bulguların ortaya çıkması çok kısa sürede olur. Kanamaya neden olan faktörler; lösemi, aplastik anemi, hemofili gibi kanama bozuklukları, antikoagülan tedavi, akut enfeksyionları, diyabet ve anevrizmalar gibi damar yapısıyla ilgili bozukluklar, kafa travmaları, ht, tümördür. Tanı Yöntemleri Nelerdir? Hastalık belirtileri ile başvuran bir hastada serebrovasküler hastalık tanısını koymakta hasta ve hasta yakınlarının vereceği bilgi çok değerlidir.
Bu nedenle hastanın yanında olayın gelişimini en iyi bilen kişilerin olması tanının daha çabuk konmasına yardım eder. Hastanın muayenesini takiben yapılacak görüntüleme tetkikleri gereklilik sırasına göre düzenlenir. Hastanın muayenesine takiben yapılacak görüntüleme tetkikleri gereklilik sırasına göre düzenlenir. Kranial tomografi en sık kullanılan ve tanıya oldukça yardımcı bir inceleme metodudur. Bazı hastalarda duruma göre kranial MRI ve anjiografi de gerekebilir. Hastalığın nedenini bulmaya yönelik kan tahlilleri ve kardiyak tetkikleri de başvuru sırasında tamamlanır.
Effective treatment of the disease should begin as quickly as possible, as in the treatment of a heart attack. Clot dissolving methods, which can be applied in patients who are brought in the first three or six hours, can give very satisfactory results in the treatment. In patients who arrive later, treatments to prevent vascular obstruction (heparin and its derivatives, coumadin, antiaggregant treatments), and if there is edema in the brain, treatments are applied to eliminate this situation. In cases of bleeding, it differs approximately, and surgical treatments are rarely used. In addition, cardiac, hematological and other systemic problems that cause this situation should be eliminated. In the next stage, rehabilitation interventions are applied for patients to regain their lost functions.